For centuries, women have been applying makeup to enhance their beauty. But judging from art and literature, the practice was widely considered to be a frivolous indulgence.
During the Roman period, cosmetics were thought to be an expression of vanity and selfishness. But the idea of beauty was more broadly rooted in the Stoic philosophy, which regarded true beauty as intrinsically related to goodness.
In ancient Egypt, both men and women used cosmetics to keep their skin clean and soft. They also sprayed on perfumes and dyed their hair, nails and lips. These practices were a sign of respect and humility, as they were viewed as an essential part of their beauty rituals.
To clean their bodies, Egyptians often bathed with a mixture of clay or ash and scented oils. This was done daily and was believed to make the body more supple, soft, and smooth.
They also applied a special face-stain to their cheeks that was made from a red clay called ochre. Ochre was mined and finely ground before it was mixed with water. This created a noticeable color that the ancient Egyptians admired.
The Egyptians were also among the first to use perfumes, which they sprayed on their bodies and used in religious ceremonies. These perfumes were based on the scent of various plants, flowers, and seeds. They were sprayed on the skin and absorbed into the body to create a pleasant scent that was believed to have spiritual and moral properties.
Some of these perfumes are still used today, such as myrrh and frankincense. These perfumes were deemed to be of great importance to the Egyptians, as they reflected their religious beliefs.
Similarly, they wore kohl (black eye paint) to accentuate their eyes. This was also a sign of status in the ancient Egyptian society.
Another famous Egyptian makeup product was lipstick, which was worn by both men and women. According to Bustle, it was a way to represent social status and was worn by royalty and high-ranking members of the society.
It was also a good idea to wear lip paint in the ancient Egyptian society because it made the mouth look larger and more defined. It was also a way to ward off evil spirits and was a symbol of a woman’s femininity.
It was also believed that eyeliner helped protect the eyes from harmful rays of the sun and kept away flies. It was made of galena mesdemet (made of copper and lead ore), malachite (bright green paste of copper minerals), and kohl (a mixture of burnt almonds, oxidized copper, different colored copper ores, lead, ash and ochre). These cosmetics were very important in the ancient Egyptian society because they helped improve the appearance of the human body.
The Greco-Romans developed a multicultural society, spreading their culture throughout the Mediterranean and the Near East. They absorbed Greek customs, including the use of cosmetics, which became an essential part of their identity.
The ancient world was characterized by an abundance of beauty products. The Egyptians and the Greeks created their own canons of beauty that influenced Roman thought. The work of Ovid, Medicamina Faciei Feminae, shows the changes that occurred in Roman society as the way women perceived themselves changed.
Makeup, a mixture of powders and oils, was used by women in ancient Greece and Rome to enhance their natural appearance. It was also used to hide scars and blemishes.
Greeks used rouge for their cheeks, whitener to make their skin paler and black eyeliner or eye shadow. It was also used to darken hair or make it lighter, and to dye it.
Some of the ingredients of cosmetics were very unusual. They may have included leeches that were boiled in wine, beechwood ash, and goat fat. These exotic products were likely to be highly effective, as evidenced by the surviving crucibles and containers for making these cosmetics.
Women who wore makeup were usually members of the elite. But they were not confined to this class; some men of lower classes wore makeup as well.
The Greco-Romans had a rich history of religious worship and were also involved in political affairs. They often consulted with the oracle at Delphi, which was dedicated to the gods Apollo and Artemis. They also celebrated festivals that honored the gods.
Aside from religion, the Greco-Romans had a large influence on philosophy. They introduced the concept of logos, or reason and defining pattern, into their thinking. These ideas were able to provide answers to many questions about nature and existence without relying on the supernatural.
They were also experimenters with political life, allowing men to participate in their governments. These experiments were short-lived in both societies, but the ideas reemerged later in Europe and the United States to shape modern government.
The New Testament often references ancient Greco-Roman religion. These references have relevance for modern Christians because they highlight the need to treat those of other faiths or none at all. This is a difficult challenge, but one that we must face.
Cosmetics in Ancient Rome were used to express wealth, status, health and beauty. Unlike their Greek predecessors, who used them for ceremonial and religious purposes, Romans made them part of their everyday lives.
Makeup was applied in private by women, usually in a small room where men did not enter. Rich Romans had their own “beauticians”, or cosmetae, female slaves who adorned their mistresses with cultus (makeup, perfumes and jewelry).
The beauty of Roman women was measured by their flawless pale complexion, free from wrinkles, freckles and sunspots. They were renowned for their large almond-shaped eyes, thick and defined eyebrows and long eyelashes.
In pursuit of this ideal, they used a wide variety of products, including a facial whitener made from crocodile dung (this is a term often attributed to Ethiopian soil) and cinnabar which was thought to give a brighter complexion and remove blemishes and pigmentation. Other ingredients were mulberry juice, wine dregs and alkanet.
Roman cosmetics also included a variety of treatments to reduce the appearance of scars, blemishes and sunspots. For instance, if the skin was very dry or cracked, a fat mixed with aromatic materials, such as rhamnus preparations, would be especially useful.
To darken the eyes, the Romans used date stones and charred petal roses, but there were also colorful eyeshadows that could be purchased in stores. Green came from malachite and blue from azurite, while red was from Tyrian vermillion or even pomegranate juice.
Another face cream was a mixture of cow or sheep fat, starch and tin oxide, which gave women a powdery white texture to their skin. Some of these whitening creams were contaminated with lead, which was considered poisonous by the Romans at the time.
To define their eyelashes, Roman women used a resin called lentisk that was a precursor to our modern mascaras. The lentisk was applied to the upper and lower lashes and allowed them to appear longer and more defined.
Greek cosmetics were an important part of the everyday life of their ancient citizens. Tombs have revealed many small containers and spiky glass bottles used to store unguents, pastes and oils.
One of the most commonly used ingredients in Greek beauty regimes was olive oil. This rich moisturiser was used to keep skin soft and supple, and it was often infused with herbs for added fragrance.
It was also popular for its anti-inflammatory properties and to help remove dead skin cells. Honey was another important ingredient in Greek cosmetics. It was also an essential ingredient in the nightly baths that were a staple of ancient Greece.
The Greeks believed that light skin was the height of beauty. They did not use any pigments to darken their complexions, instead using lead carbonate powder and egkhousa (enchousa) or red iron oxide to make their cheeks appear lighter.
These products were quite dangerous and they could cause serious problems with the skin. They were also expensive and it would take a long time to apply them properly.
Other popular cosmetics in Greece included lipsticks and a wide variety of eye shadows. Women also used to wear false eyebrows, made from oxen hair and tree resin.
A woman’s makeup was not just about making them look beautiful but it was a way for them to identify themselves. It was a way for them to distinguish themselves from the other women around them and it helped them stand out in the crowd.
They also believed that having pale skin was prestigious and that it was a sign of power. Therefore they would wear hats with holes in the center to protect their head from the sun and to help them maintain a pale complexion.
The ancient Greeks also believed that having a big brow was a sign of beauty and intelligence and therefore they painted their eyebrows with a mixture of charcoal to make them look as thick as possible. They also filled in the gaps between their brows with charcoal to make them look as big as possible.