Various ancient cosmetics were used in ancient civilizations. These products included oils and waxes, as well as soaps and lotions. They were also used as perfumes. Some of these products were made from natural ingredients such as olive oil, myrrh, and cochineal bugs. Other products were made from man-made ingredients, including perfumes, lotions, and hair dyes.
During the Byzantine Empire, cosmetics were developed as a high-end trade. These perfumes were made with ingredients from trade routes in the Persian Gulf, India and Persia. Byzantine perfumes contained nard, or nard oil, which was a plant scent from India.
Aside from perfume, Byzantines also used lotions, eye shadow and lipstick. Some of the ingredients in Byzantine cosmetics included white lead, which was used to darken the eyes.
Byzantine perfumes and cosmetics were kept in elaborate caskets. These were usually made of ivory, bone, or metal. They were also stored in glass containers.
The Byzantine perfumery was located in the northwest of the city. It was near the Blachernae Palace. This area was also the location of an attar of roses shop.
Roses were highly valued by the Byzantine Emperors. They were also considered a medicinal plant. They were grown in many areas of the city, and their scent was a source of much pleasure.
Aside from being an excellent source of fragrance, roses were used in making perfumes. In the early Byzantine era, they were often added to oil to help mask the smell of the oil. They were also mixed with cinnamon to make a special chrism that was used in the Hagia Sophia during the holy week.
Byzantines also wore a variety of jewelry. Their favorite technique was enameling. They were particularly fond of rings. They devised many styles of rings. The Byzantines loved wearing gold, especially when it came to jewelry.
Byzantines were criticized for vanity. They were known as pleasure-loving dandies in western Europe. They were often admonished for their vanity by the Christian preachers.
During the first Ottoman blockade of Constantinople around 1400, nobles left their estates. During this time, many of the perfume shops and spice shops were closed.
During the classical period, many people criticized the use of cosmetics. The Etruscan civilization, however, did not develop any cosmetic products. Instead, they used adornment to represent their social status.
Etruscans were renowned for their advanced culture. They occupied a large portion of central Italy during the Iron Age. They later became a part of the Hellenistic world. They were responsible for many important innovations in urban planning.
They inhabited the modern regions of Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria. They possessed excellent skills in metallurgy. They produced sarcophagi and funerary urns. They imitated Corinthian ceramics, and they adopted more original forms. Their art is now held in private collections and in European museums.
An ancient Etruscan sarcophagus was discovered in 1881 outside Cerveteri. It is a masterpiece of Etruscan art. It is carved in marble and has a name and a picture of a couple. The couple is shown in a long-lasting embrace.
The sarcophagus is composed of 400 pieces. It is similar to a British Museum in London. The sarcophagus was purchased by the Etruscan Museum at Villa Giulia in Rome.
The sarcophagus depicts a fun-loving Etruscan culture. It shows a couple wearing jewelry and sandals, and it includes a burial box filled with various grave goods. The couple’s names, their faces, and the names of their husband and wife are all visible. The sarcophagus is a perfect example of the unique culture of the Etruscans.
A great amount of Etruscan art was also created. Thousands of pieces are now housed in private collections and in European museums. The Etruscan civilization lasted from the eighth century BCE to the first century BCE. They had an advanced society, with a liberal view of life. Their culture was marked by an extinct language, and they were known for their sophisticated cultural representations.
During the Predynastic Period of Egypt, men and women of all social classes used cosmetics. It was considered important for their appearance and to improve health. Some makeup could be purchased at home, but better products were only available to the rich.
Among the ancient Egyptians, the most popular cosmetics were eye make-up and lipstick. These products gave the wearer immunity from various diseases. Besides, these makeups were also believed to protect the skin and eyes from harmful elements.
Ancient Egyptians made use of red, green, and blue eye-makeup. They also stained their lips with henna and painted their faces and nails. In addition, they wore black eyeliner around their eyes.
Henna was extracted from flowers and leaves. It was also used as a natural conditioner. It was applied to the nails and hair to give them a shiny, reddish color. It also provided a cooling effect when applied to the skin.
These cosmetics were used for protection from the sun, wind, and insect bites. They were a necessity for the harsh climate of Egypt. It was also believed that beauty was a sign of holiness.
Egyptians applied paints and perfumes to their skin with brushes or sticks made of bone, ivory, or wood. They mixed the ingredients with a lubricant such as alkaline salts or animal fats. Some of the ingredients were used for cleansing.
Some of the ancient Egyptians used kohl, which was a dark pigment consisting of oxidized copper and soot. They mixed this with red ochre and kneaded it to a fine powder. They then applied this to the lips and face with a brush.
In the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian women invented the natural waxing technique. They used honey, milk, and sugar to create a mixture that they applied on their skin. They also wore milk and honey face masks. The combination of the three ingredients made the skin soft and smooth.
Throughout history, Myrrh has been used in beauty and health treatments. In fact, the ancient Egyptians used it to help reverse the signs of aging. They also used it to treat burns and wounds.
Myrrh is known to have analgesic, antiseptic, and antioxidant properties. These qualities work wonders for skin rejuvenation. Using Myrrh regularly can reduce wrinkles and fine lines, and prevent sagging skin. It can even soothe chapped skin and dry skin.
Myrrh is harvested from the sap of a tree that is native to Africa and Asia. It is a member of the Commiphora genus, a group of short, thorny shrubs. The resin that is harvested is yellow in color and opaque.
Myrrh is a powerful antioxidant that fights the aging process. Its strong, woody scent can be applied topically or inhaled. It also has a calming, soothing effect that promotes emotional well-being.
Myrrh’s anti-inflammatory and expectorant properties are also beneficial. It can be used to treat coughs, colds, and bronchitis. It can also provide relief from swelling and bruising. It is also a natural insect repellent.
Today, Myrrh is available as a tincture, powder, and essential oil. It is a popular ingredient in mouthwashes and toothpastes. It is also used in aromatherapy.
Myrrh is commonly combined with other citrus, spicy, and floral oils. This allows the strong, woody scent of Myrrh to blend with the other ingredients, resulting in a pleasant aroma. The combination of these oils can be used on various ailments, including eczema and acne.
It is important to remember that Myrrh should not be used on sensitive areas of the body, such as the eyes. It should also be tested before use to ensure that it is safe for your particular situation.
Throughout history, the cochineal insect has been one of the most prized dye-producing insects. Originally from the subtropical region of South and Central America, cochineal is cultivated in South Africa and Peru.
It is a small scale insect, with an oval shape and a red color. Its name is derived from the Latin word “coccinus” meaning scarlet. The insects feed on prickly pear cacti. They are harvested to produce carminic acid, which is used in cosmetics and food. The chemical is extracted from the female cochineal insect, which then produces the red pigment.
Cochineal is now primarily grown in the Canary Islands and Peru. In the past, it was cultivated in South and Central America, Mexico and Spain. In the late fifteenth century, Spanish people sent scientists, bureaucrats and artists to the Americas. They developed elaborate systems for harvesting cochineal and cactus.
In ancient Mesoamerica, the cochineal was cultivated on prickly pear cacti. The insects were then painted on the cacti with a fox hair brush. They could be ground to powder.
After several generations, the female cochineal began to produce carminic acid, which is a natural dye. The carmine is then combined with salts and water to produce a deep red. A binder, such as aluminum sulfate, binds the carmine. It is then dried in direct sunlight or heated rooms to produce the deep red pigment.
Cochineal was first cultivated in the southern highlands of Mexico. It was then domesticated in the Aztec civilization. The Aztecs used the insect to make red paint and dye. The Europeans then discovered cochineal dyed fabrics in the South and Central American regions in the 1500s. It was then introduced to the rest of the world.