Ancient cosmetics are one of the oldest types of cosmetics known to mankind. They were used by both humans and animals. These include lead, myrrh, and galena. Some of these materials are still used today, and have been known to protect the skin against bacteria and viruses. In addition, these cosmetics are not harmful to the environment. However, there are several factors to consider when shopping for these products.
Cochineal bugs have been used for thousands of years to produce red dye. They are native to Central and South America. In ancient Mesoamerica, the insects were bred for their ideal traits and used for paints, dyes and as inks. Later, the Spanish conquistadors discovered them and introduced them to the rest of the world.
When the Spaniards invaded the region, cochineal became the primary source of wealth. The insects were cultivated and sold by the tonne. This trade accounted for a significant part of the empire’s economy.
By the end of the sixteenth century, cochineal had become one of the most profitable trades in Europe. It was also an important ingredient in the cosmetics and textile industries.
Cochineal is extracted from the crushed body of a female insect, which is known as Dactylopius coccus. These insects feed on prickly pear cacti. As they grow, they release a bright red dye into the atmosphere.
Cochineal was first cultivated in the southern highlands of Mexico. By the 19th century, cochineal had migrated into Japan, Peru and the Canary Islands. However, cultivation was restricted to Spanish-controlled Mexico until 1777. Today, the insect is primarily cultivated in Peru and South Africa.
In the ancient world, lead was a useful ingredient in the production of a variety of products. It was used in construction, and also to make decorative objects.
The Egyptians used it to make kohl, a substance that was used for eyeliner. They also loved to use lead-based eye paint.
White lead was one of the most important pigments in the history of makeup. However, it can also be a poison.
Lead carbonate was used as an ingredient in cosmetics from Antiquity to the eighteenth century. Lead was corrosive when it came into contact with acetic acid vapors. This caused white flakes to form on the lead.
Lead-based make-up was the most common formula in Antiquity. Some researchers believe that it was the earliest synthesized cosmetic product.
Another important use of lead was to create bullets. During the Roman era, women used lead-based eye-liner to hide thinning hair and give them a pale white complexion.
Another example of a technological feat was the manufacture of cerussite, a mineral. CErussite is a natural product that is found in the oxidation zone of lead deposits. To produce it, CO2 is needed.
While the ancients had no idea where lead originated, they certainly knew that it was dangerous. Assyrians and Babylonians used soldered lead sheets, and the Romans covered their fis with leaden knuckles.
Galena and cerussite
The ancients had an assortment of cosmetics made with lead carbonate and cerussite. They used the mineral in eyeshadow and other cosmetics. These products were primarily black, shiny, or matt.
The Egyptians also used kohl eyeliner made from a mineral called laurionite. This was a chemically-synthesized form of phosgenite. It was mixed with other natural minerals.
In the past, galena was considered “white lead.” Ancients used it in eyeliner, as a pigment, and in skin-whitening products. Today, the mineral is available in a variety of colors.
A mineral that is found in several oxidized regions is cerussite. It is a common alteration product of galena. Although it has a high lead content, it is a light, transparent mineral.
It is a member of the aragonite group of orthorhombic carbonates. Its most common crystal habit is flat, but it can also form twinning forms.
The twinned form of cerussite is most valuable, and the best examples of these twins are found in Namibia. They look like intricate snowflakes. Typically, these twinned clusters of cerussite are a snow white color.
Other colors can be bluish, yellow, and green. Some of the tints of cerussite are even reminiscent of diamond. However, color does not play a major role in its value.
Incense has been used for centuries for religious purposes, as well as for the comfort of the human body. Incense is made of a variety of aromatic materials such as barks, resins, and seeds. These substances can be combustible or non-combustible.
Incense can be made from a wide range of plants and flowers. One of the most common umbelliferous plants is galbanum. Another type is frankincense. Frankincense is a resin that has been widely used as incense.
Historically, incense is known to have originated in Egypt during the Old Kingdom. This resin was originally called Nenib by Egyptians. It was later transliterated as frankincense in Western Europe.
In the Old Kingdom, Kepu incense was considered sacred. It was created with a complex recipe involving up to sixteen ingredients. The incense was then transmuted by fire to offer it to the god Neteru.
The term Antiu was generically used to describe sacred resin incense after the New Kingdom. It was also associated with the goddess Hathor and her menses. Many varieties were listed in inscriptions at the Temple of Edfu.
Kepu incense was a mixture of botanicals and gums, as well as exotic resinous woods. It was also costly to produce.
Myrrh is a valuable medicinal herb that has been used for thousands of years in both ancient and modern cosmetics. It has a woody, herbaceous aroma that is widely known for its anti-inflammatory properties and ability to moisturize and rejuvenate skin.
The Commiphora myrrha tree grows in parts of Africa, the Middle East, and India. It is a cousin of the Frankincense tree. Both trees have similar properties and are often combined in herbal formulas to improve the health of both body and hair.
For many centuries, myrrh has been one of the most valued commodities in the ancient world. It was used in many different ways, including as a fragrance, an incense, and a healing substance. In addition to its aromatic qualities, myrrh is also a powerful antioxidant that works to heal and prevent aging skin.
One of the most common uses for myrrh is in mouthwashes. It is a common ingredient in ointments, tinctures, and powders for treating toothaches. Also, it is a great natural expectorant, which is used to relieve coughs, bronchitis, and congestion.
Some of the cosmetic applications of myrrh include moisturizing, reducing redness, and soothing minor wounds and bruising. Additionally, myrrh is a great anti-inflammatory and antiseptic agent.
Byzantine cosmetics consisted of a variety of beauty items, including anti wrinkle creams, rose water, scented oil, and other treatments. Women of all classes used these products to improve their appearance. These items were often kept in a decorative casket.
Cosmetics were not as widely popular in the Byzantine Empire as they were in the Greek and Roman empires. Men did not wear make up, but women used eye shadow, rouge, black eyeliner, and hair dye. The main ingredients in these products were likely natural.
Perfumes were also very popular. The smell of roses was known to have a medicinal effect. During the Byzantine Empire, the perfumes of the emperors were particularly valued. They were packed in special coolers, which were covered with silver.
Roses were also a favorite of the Byzantine gardeners. In addition to being a beautiful flower, they were also very effective at keeping out robbers.
Some of the cosmetics used by the Byzantines were produced in a special workshop near the Gate of Kynegos on the Golden Horn. Other shops were located in the northeastern part of the city. Among the most famous perfume shops were in the vicinity of the Hagia Sophia.
Cosmetics were a key part of the lives of ancient Roman women. They were essential for rituals and personal hygiene. The cosmetics they used were derived from herbs, fruits, vegetables and minerals. Ancient Romans used a wide variety of makeup, including lipstick, nail varnish, mascara, and eye shadow.
Women in Rome had to spend a lot of time getting ready. In addition to making their faces look good, they also had to clean their teeth. Personal hygiene included exfoliants and oil-based soaps. Besides that, they also used lotions and deodorant.
Among the most popular cosmetics of the ancient Romans were white lead paste for face paint and cerussa for brightening the skin. These creams were made with 40% starch, which made it feel less greasy on the skin.
Roman women applied the cosmetics on their cheeks, eyes, and eyebrows. Their eyelids were colored with green shadows from malachite.
In addition to the cosmetics, the ancient Romans also used perfumes, which were usually oil-based. Their skin was treated with lotions made from plant extracts.
Romans were often ridiculed by their peers for applying make-up. It was believed that a woman who applied too much make-up was immoral and a prostitute.