Cosmetics have been used throughout the world since ancient times to enhance beauty, promote good health and indicate class. They are also an important part of religious rituals and ceremonies.
Uncovered burials have revealed that ancient civilizations devoted much time and effort to creating and using cosmetics. These preparations, often containing animal pelts and other skin-enhancing substances, were believed to have spiritual and protective powers.
Beauty is a big deal in ancient Egypt, and a lot of people took their personal hygiene seriously. Their self-care rituals, which lasted from morning to evening, included using ointments, creams and oils that nourished skin, softened the hair and hid body odor.
The Egyptians were among the first to use cosmetics as a way to enhance their appearance and improve their health. They used scented oils and creams that were derived from plants, flowers and animal fats to make the skin soft and smooth, mask body odor, and keep it wrinkle free.
They also used henna, a natural dye that was also applied to the nails to help them grow longer and thicker. It was a popular ritual for both men and women.
In addition, kohl was used as a mascara for eyes. The black powder was made from burnt almond shells, fat and malachite. It was also used to line the eyes, as it was said to ward off the evil eye.
This was a very important practice in ancient Egypt because they believed that beauty was a sign of holiness. It was also a sign of wealth and social status.
Many Egyptians died young and were mummified; their mummies wore cartonnage masks, which were often covered in makeup. These masks were shaped like human bodies and displayed dramatic beauty looks such as kohl-rimmed eyes, perfect lips, and shiny nails.
Cosmetics in Egypt were formulated by experts who knew the right ingredients to use and the best way to apply them. They would grind up minerals into powders and add a carrier agent, usually grease, to make them easier to apply and stay on the skin.
For example, galena was a black mineral that was mixed with cerussite laurionite and phosgenite to make a range of gray hues. It was mixed with a variety of other pigments to create different colors for the lips and cheeks.
The Egyptians were also the first to use kohl for eyebrows. The black color was painted on the brows and filled out to form an almond or feline-like shape.
Cosmetics and beauty have always been an important part of society, and the Romans weren’t any different. They had a long history of using makeup to enhance their appearance, from red lips and cheek rouges to white powder to make their skin lighter to perfumes for special occasions.
Ancient Rome was a place where people were very concerned with their appearance and they spent a lot of time and effort to achieve their ideals. These standards included pale skin, smooth hair and big eyes.
They used a wide variety of products to help them accomplish these goals, including face creams, masks, oils, and salves. They also used a blend of herbs and other natural materials to combat wrinkles, heal blemishes, and hide spots and freckles.
One of the most common ingredients for facial masks was honey, which was said to have anti-inflammatory and healing properties. It was mixed with salves made from olive, emu, or ostrich sperm oil and other ingredients to soften the skin and increase its elasticity.
Another popular ingredient in masks was barley pap, which nourished the skin and helped to remove dead cells. The masks were usually soaked in water to make them easier to apply.
Other popular masks were made with ground oyster shells, beeswax and henna. Other ingredients in these masks include kohl, which was made from charcoal or ashes, almond oil, gum Arabic and frankincense (imported from Arabia or Sudan), cinnabar, rose petals, lizard excrement, and wine dregs.
A mixture of beetle juice, beeswax and safflower oil was also used to create red lips. It was applied to the lips with a needle or stick made of wood, bone or glass.
Roman women often accented their eyes with kohl, which was made from ash and soot and spread under and over the eyelids to make them look dark and beautiful. It was also used to darken the eyelashes and eyebrows.
The Romans also had a wide range of perfumes, most of which were imported from Germany, Gaul (today’s France) and China. They also had deodorants made from alum and floral blends.
The cultivation of beauty was not just a vanity pursuit for the Etruscans. It was a way to express their social status and gain a sense of pride in themselves and their family. A beautifully crafted ‘facade’ was an essential part of a woman’s identity in Etruria and was also one of the main criteria for marriage, as it facilitated a happy, long and productive life with a husband who could pass on the family name and the wealth that had been accumulated by his parents or grandparents.
Among the ancient cosmetics used by the Etruscans were perfumed ointments that were made from herbs, plants and other natural ingredients and oils such as helichrysum and rose hips, which were known to be beneficial for skin and hair health. Moringa oil, derived from the leaves of a plant native to Africa and India, was another favourite beauty product.
These were kept in small ceramic pots or bottles, a class of pottery that was unique to the Etruscans called bucchero, which was black with a fine texture and shiny walls. They were carved to resemble the shapes of flowers and women, and some were decorated with scenes of mythological themes.
Other items of adornment were carved in terracotta, which was an important material for sculpture because of its availability in Etruria. Etruscan sculptors produced a range of figural pieces, including life-size statues of gods and religious figures.
They also produced a wide range of decorative bronze objects, which were highly sought after in the rest of the Mediterranean world. They included urns, coffins, votive heads and figurines that served as offerings to the gods, a type of temple architecture and even small, decorative objects that were used for everyday tasks such as candle stands, incense burners and mirrors.
In addition to a wide range of metalwork, the Etruscans were also masters of ceramics and their production was extensive. They produced a range of coloured and faience vessels and, in particular, they were well-known for the production of bucchero ware that was black with a fine texture and very shiny walls. They were also skilled in producing bronze mirrors, garment pins, and a wide range of other household goods, many of which were exported throughout the Mediterranean.
The word cosmetics is derived from the Greek word kosmetikos, which means “a sense of harmony or order.” Ancient Greeks were lovers of physical beauty and used several ways to improve their looks, including nutrition, exercise, and cosmetics.
The ideal beauty of the Greeks was fair skin, bright lips and dark eyes. This was achieved through a number of makeup techniques, such as using vermilion for rouge, the juice from berries to stain cheeks and lips, or black incense to darken lashes. They also wore false eyebrows made of oxen hair and painted their faces with white lead.
Some of the most popular ancient cosmetics were eyeliner, mascara and lipstick. These were prepared from different flowers, herbs, pigments and natural resources, such as olive oil with beeswax, red iron oxide, ochre clays and sea salt.
A good skin moisturizer was essential, and this was a key ingredient in most ancient cosmetics. Ancient Greeks used various oils, such as olive oil, lanolin from sheep’s wool and wood ash. They also mixed sea salt with sugar to create an exfoliating scrub.
Many ancient Greeks also used a skin lightening treatment that was extremely dangerous. They used a compound called ceruse, which was made from lead carbonate, to whiten their skin. This technique is still used today, but it has some serious health consequences, so it is better to avoid it.
Another way to lighten skin was with an acid, such as vinegar. This could be applied to the entire face and then left to sit in the sun. It was effective at lightening the skin and would also prevent a tan.
Finally, ancient Greeks used honey to moisturize their skin. They would apply it to their faces and hair, leaving it on for hours before washing it off.
Most ancient Greek women wore minimal makeup, which was not very popular among the lower classes or prostitutes. This was probably because cosmetics were very expensive and only the rich could afford them. But in other parts of the world, such as Egypt, makeup was a common practice and used to enhance a woman’s beauty and status.