Down syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic condition. People typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes, half of which come from their mother and the rest from their father.
Down syndrome is usually caused by an extra chromosome that fails to separate before or during a child’s pregnancy. The extra chromosome is replicated in every cell of the body, making up three copies of chromosome 21 instead of two.
Genetics is the study of how genes, which are sections of DNA, influence human traits and health. The study is important because all physical and mental traits, including intelligence, are influenced by genes that are inherited from one’s parents.
The human genome, which consists of the chromosomes found in all of us, contains about 20,000 different genes. These genes have instructions for building molecules that help our bodies work. Each gene is made up of a pair of chromosomes and a sequence of four bases, adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine.
When an embryo doesn’t get the right number of chromosomes during cell division, it can cause a variety of disorders. The most common is down syndrome, which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21. Other problems are deletions (missing a small part of a chromosome) and translocations (moving a chromosome from one place to another).
Trisomy 22 is a rare form of Down syndrome that occurs when a chimp has a third copy of chromosome 22. The condition causes a variety of symptoms in people with the disorder, including crossed eyes, underdeveloped teeth and heart abnormalities.
Scientists recently confirmed a diagnosis of trisomy 22 in a 24-year-old female chimp named Kanako. She was born in captivity at a Japanese wildlife facility in 1992. Her caretakers did not suspect she had the syndrome, but later exams showed that she has the disorder.
Researchers said that the findings show that Down syndrome may be a common condition among chimpanzees. They also said that the chimp’s behavior before she was diagnosed suggests she is not severely affected by the disorder.
In addition, the study suggests that chimpanzees could be used as models to better understand the complex genetics of Down syndrome. Currently, a well-characterized rhesus macaque breeding colony is the primary translational genetic model for research into this complex disorder.
Genetics is also a very broad field that covers everything from the genes we inherit to our body’s response to toxins and other substances. It’s a complicated and ever-evolving science that requires an extensive knowledge of atoms, molecules, and biology.
Monkeys are social animals, living in troops of several females and a single male. They are very close to one another and usually stay with their troop through their lives. A few species are polygynous, with one male mating with multiple females.
They are omnivorous and feed on fruits, seeds, insects, and other plant material. They are also very good at deciphering the environment and recognizing odors. They are able to navigate through forests and jungles in search of food.
Most monkeys have long tails, which help them balance while walking and climbing trees. They can also use their tails as an extra arm or hand.
Many monkeys are tame and make good pets. Some, like the squirrel and woolly monkeys (genus Cebus) can spontaneously use sticks to catch food.
Other New World monkeys, including the acrobatic spider monkeys and noisy howlers, have become famous for their antics and are popular with humans. However, habitat loss and hunting threaten most of them.
Samango monkeys, which are the most widespread of the samango species in southern Africa, are under pressure from land development and the loss of their native forest patches. In the Limpopo region of South Africa, for example, forest fragmentation has led to a reduction in their available habitat. Consequently, samangos are increasingly relying on matrix habitat between forest patches to avoid extinction (Lawes et al., 2000; Linden et al., 2016).
To determine the critical habitat of samango monkeys across different scales of selection, we used remote sensing data to examine how landscape variables affected samango monkey home range size (Figure 1). We found that habitat productivity, indicated by remotely sensed EVI, was the most important landscape variable influencing samango monkey home range size.
As shown in Table 1, samango monkeys were more likely to establish their home ranges in areas with higher EVI than in other parts of the forest. This was largely because they preferred areas that were tall-canopied and dense.
We also found that the Woodbush Forest Reserve was the most critical forest patch for samangos in the Limpopo region, which further demonstrates its importance for samango monkey conservation. We also found that forest patches in riverine forests, particularly in the western Soutpansberg, were more critical than in other regions.
Monkeys are a great example of animals that can have down syndrome. They share the same chromosomes as humans, which means they can also develop this disease. While it is very rare for monkeys to have down syndrome, there are still cases that occur.
Down syndrome is a genetic condition that happens when a baby has an extra chromosome, causing physical characteristics like an upward slant to the eyes and low muscle tone. This disorder can be caused by a number of different things, but it is most often found in human babies.
Normally, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes in a human. In people with down syndrome, there is an extra, third copy of the 21st chromosome.
This extra chromosome is called trisomy 22. The first case of a chimp with this disorder was discovered in 1969. It is not clear how common this condition is among chimps, but it can be very severe.
The condition has stunted Kanako’s growth, left her blind and has caused a congenital heart disease. She has underdeveloped teeth and joint problems, as well.
She has had to live with caretakers since she was born, but she is now 24 years old and has helped researchers learn more about down syndrome in chimpanzees. The researchers have confirmed that she has down syndrome and she is helping them understand how this condition can affect a chimp’s development.
As with most species of animal, a balanced diet is vital for any primate. This needs to be offered in a way and at a frequency that is suited to their nature and species, providing all the necessary nutrients.
A healthy diet should include a variety of fruits, vegetables and grains, as well as fresh meats. The balance of the diet will vary depending on the type of animal, their size and health status. It is important to monitor individual food intake, as not all primates react the same way to foods and this will impact on the overall diet.
In addition, it is important to make sure that the animal is receiving adequate amounts of vitamin C and E, as these two vitamins are vital for their immune system. The best option is to provide a natural, balanced diet that is free of additives and other artificial ingredients.
A mother chimpanzee in Tanzania has been observed taking care of her severely disabled infant in the wild. The unusual case may help scientists better understand how humans came to care for children with disabilities.
Researchers noticed that the baby chimp, who was named XT11, looked abnormally small and slow to develop. She was also significantly more reliant on her mother’s care than healthy infants are, the team writes. Moreover, she was unable to stand or walk on her own at six months of age. This was unusual for a chimpanzee of her age, the team says, and could be related to her trisomy 22 disease.
Despite these extreme abnormalities, XT11 managed to survive until she was nearly two years old, the authors say. They believe that the baby’s survival may be attributed to her tender mother’s care, which kept her alive far longer than other disabled infants in the wild.
The mother, Christina, enlisted her older daughter to help with the care of her disabled baby. She carried her, groomed her, and even played with her, the study reports. But she stopped once she had her own babies, the authors write.
This kind of care is rare for chimpanzees, and this is only the second documented case in which a wild female chimp took such good care of her disabled infant. The first was a chimp in 1969, which died before it was a year old, the researchers write.
As the research team notes, this is the first detailed report of a chimp with down syndrome in the wild. It also provides a glimpse into how other chimpanzees respond to disabled infants.
Another case involves a chimp named Kanako who has a genetic disorder that causes her to have three copies of chromosome 22 instead of the normal two. The condition is similar to human down syndrome, which occurs when an extra third copy of chromosome 21 is present.
While this genetic disorder is very rare among apes, it has left her with severe physical and mental health problems. It has stunted her growth, left her blind, and caused congenital heart disease and underdeveloped teeth.