Several animals have been reported to have Down syndrome, including monkeys. However, the exact cause of Down syndrome is not fully understood, but it appears that there is a link between genetic defects and the disease. Several researchers are studying the condition to discover the causes and possible treatments.
Several chimpanzees with down syndrome have been identified. The first case was documented in 1969. The second case was recently confirmed by Japanese scientists. It is a condition characterized by the presence of an extra third copy of chromosome 22. This chromosomal disorder is similar to Down syndrome in humans.
The first chimp diagnosed with this disorder died before her second birthday. It is not known how common the disorder is in the general chimp population. However, the incidence of trisomy 22 in chimpanzees is likely to be similar to that of people.
In the 1970s, a female chimp in Japan was found to have an abnormal physiology and behavioral traits. The researchers suggested that the problem might be a chromosomal disorder. Kanako was born in captivity and was housed separately from other chimps. As she grew, she developed a number of abnormal characteristics, including crossed eyes, underdeveloped teeth and a hole in the wall of her heart.
After a medical investigation, researchers have confirmed that Kanako has a chromosomal defect. The chimp’s third copy of chromosome 22 is homologous to the human chromosome 21. The chromosomal disorder causes stunted growth and partial blindness.
The chimp is housed in separate accommodations and has been given periodic interactions with another female. These interactions are designed to provide social stimulation for the disabled chimp. The study was published in the journal Primates. The researchers described their efforts to improve Kanako’s quality of life.
A female chimpanzee named Roman has been a good friend to Kanako. The two were able to interact with each other once a month. Their interactions are calm and gentle. They have been friends since they were both young. They also interact with other chimps on occasion.
Kanako has a chromosomal abnormality referred to as trisomy 22. This condition causes a number of problems in chimpanzees, including congenital heart disease and blindness. The condition was picked up during a routine physical examination of the chimp. The chimp’s condition is being studied by researchers at Kyoto University. They are hoping that they can learn more about the genetic disorder, and find ways to better manage it.
During their summer months, two thirds of the world’s beluga population migrates to the Churchill River and Hudson Bay. They are a popular species in aquariums worldwide. However, these whales face threats such as pollution, contamination, poaching and oil exploration. NMFS has historically classified the species as a depleted marine mammal, if it falls below 60 percent of the estimated historic population level.
The scientific community has recognized that cetaceans suffer trauma when they are captured and confined to human care. In fact, they have demonstrated a natural propensity to mimic their conspecifics. They are also noted to use alliance formation strategies and to mimic motor actions and sounds.
The United States has the last source of wild-caught cetaceans for public display. However, the National Marine Fisheries Service has not approved import of wild cetaceans in US waters since 1992 (beluga whales captured in Canada).
The Animal Welfare Institute filed a petition with NMFS seeking protection for the Sakhalin Bay-Amur River beluga stock. This stock is subject to ongoing threats, including annual live captures and intense historical hunting. The Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission has concluded that the beluga population is depleted. NMFS has reviewed the petition and is now considering a designation of “depleted” for the Sakhalin Bay-Amur belugas. This designation would encourage continued recovery efforts and encourage support for conservation initiatives.
Beluga whales have sophisticated acoustic systems, including whistles and echolocation clicks. They also display a sophisticated vocal repertoire, including burst pulses and signature calls.
The beluga whale is also known for its ability to copy conspecific motor movements and sounds. The research described here establishes that belugas can reproduce a full migratory circuit as a characteristic behavior. It also provides evidence that the migratory culture of belugas is inherited.
The research described in this thesis describes the two main types of social play that beluga whales engage in. These include object play and mouth-to-mouth interaction play. The latter is important for training immature animals’ motor coordination skills.
The study found that belugas were able to generalize learned behaviors to other animals. For example, they were able to duplicate PS1 calls if other animals did not respond. They also delayed subsequent PS1 calls until other animals responded.
Those who are interested in animal rights are familiar with the issue of animals with Down syndrome. Several animals have gone viral for having the condition. But what is Down syndrome? The term refers to a genetic disorder that causes a third copy of chromosome 21. This defect leads to physical and mental disabilities. There are many conditions that can present symptoms similar to Down syndrome.
Kenny the tiger was an internet sensation because of his face, which resembled those of people with Down’s syndrome. Kenny was born with a defect that caused his mouth to open permanently. His face was distorted and had wide eyes. His snout was also short. He was labelled ‘the world’s ugliest tiger’.
He was taken to Turpentine Creek Wildlife Reserve in Arkansas. In 2008, he died from melanoma, after a long battle. He was the poster child for the problems with inbreeding. His parents were siblings who were forced to breed.
In addition to Down’s syndrome, Kenny had an abnormally short snout, wide eyes, and deformed facial features. His brothers and sister were cross-eyed.
While he was alive, Kenny was rescued from an unethical tiger farm in Arkansas. He was loved by staff members at the sanctuary. He lived at Turpentine Creek Wildlife Reserve until 2008.
In 2010, a group of researchers found out that there were a lot more white tigers in captivity than fifty years ago. There is a limited genetic pool of the animals, so there are a lot of health and genetic issues. This makes inbreeding inevitable.
The American Zoological Association restricted inbreeding training in 2011. The problem with inbreeding is that it creates deformities and medical conditions. There have been reports of tigers being killed for their fur. The problem is that zoos and other venues that breed these cats for entertainment purposes are not doing anything to help.
If you are interested in learning more about the problems of inbreeding, you can visit the Turpentine Creek Wildlife Refuge. They will be able to explain the process in a five-minute segment. They are urging everyone to stop supporting facilities that breed these animals for entertainment.
Genetically engineered mice
GEMM Core is a laboratory at the University of Arizona that genetically modifies mice for research. Researchers use microscopes to insert DNA into mouse embryos. In the process, they can create over 150 different mice models for research.
One of the most important contributions to life science research is the creation of genetically modified mice. These animals are a valuable tool for clarifying the molecular mechanisms underlying pathological conditions. They can also be used to generate new therapeutic strategies for mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.
Scientists have created thousands of transgenic mice. They have been used to create models for many of the most common genetic disorders, including Huntington’s disease, sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis. These models also allow researchers to study the immune response to cancer cells.
The first animal patent was awarded to Harvard University in 1988. Now, many labs “make” mice for specific purposes. Some skip animal testing to go straight to human clinical trials. But others must perform animal experiments to prove their procedures are safe.
The National Institutes of Health is pouring $60 million into the creation of knockout mice. These will help researchers map the function of every mouse gene. This will be used to develop more specific research and to understand the role of each mouse gene in disease development.
In order to make the mice, researchers need to use a surrogate mother to produce embryos. Afterward, the embryos are transplanted into female mice. The success rate of this procedure can range from 10 to 50 percent.
The cost of producing these mice can be tens of thousands of dollars. The animals can also suffer from defects, such as chromosomal abnormalities and fatal bleeding disorders. This can skew the results of studies.
The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee makes sure the animals are handled and anesthetics are used properly. The committee also oversees the use of painkillers.
In addition to using genetically engineered mice, scientists are trying to breed new strains of mice to more accurately simulate the diversity of humans. They expect the first litter of mice pups to arrive in the near future.