Plasmalogen is a nutrient that is essential for healthy cells and is found in animals and marine life. It is also known to help improve cognition and mobility in persons with mild to moderate cognitive impairment.
Excess is caused by acetyl-CoA leakage
One of the more exciting components of the metabolic stew is the plasmalogen. A recent study has shown that the plasmalogen may be the best steroid generating cell in the animal kingdom. This is not to say that this little dynamo is a one horseman. There are other notables on hand such as the sexiest steroid, adipose fat, and the fattest rodent. The best part is that these steroid tamer cloned a few competitors in the lab. To make things even better, the fat tamer can be paired with the steroid tamer to boot. Hence, the name of the game is re-aligned. All in all, a plasmalogen supplement is a must have for anyone hoping to achieve the elusive trifecta of wellness: diet, exercise, and sleep.
They may correct a deficiency in plasmalogen
The lipids called plasmalogens are an essential part of the human body. They play critical roles in the heart, lung, kidney and brain. Without them, cell membranes cannot function as well. Plasmalogens are produced by the peroxisome, a small subcellular organelle in cells.
A deficiency of plasmalogen leads to reduced antioxidant defenses, increased oxidative stress and reduced neurotransmission. As a result, a variety of neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory disorders occur. In fact, low plasmalogen levels have been linked to bipolar disorder, Parkinson’s disease and asthma. However, dietary supplementation of plasmalogens reverses these effects.
TMEM86A is a lysoplasmalogenase. This enzyme was identified as a key regulator of lipid species in microsomes and adipocytes. It is responsible for regulating lysoplasmalogens, which are fatty acids at the sn-2 position.
Recent research has demonstrated that the phospholipase A2 in the cytosol of small intestinal epithelial cells can hydrolyze plasmalogens. This has implications for the metabolic pathways of adipocytes and may be relevant for obesity-related metabolic diseases.
Plasmalogens also serve as structural components of nerve cells. This is because they regulate the physical structure of the cell membrane. Additionally, they are involved in the generation of lipid mediators. For example, EPA-pPE exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis.
They may improve cognition and mobility in persons diagnosed with mild to moderate cognitive impairment
A recent study out of the University of Queensland has provided some useful statistics on plasmalogens, a promising new therapeutic approach to Alzheimer’s disease. Plasmalogens are a class of related lipids with a vinyl-ether bond. These molecules act as scavengers for other lipids and may also modify membrane properties. Although the studies performed to date have not yet demonstrated the clinical efficacy of this treatment, there are a plethora of animal models and experimental models that are showing promise.
Plasmalogens have been credited with producing several Ab peptides (including the e2 lipid) that are deemed to be of value in AD. The e2 lipid is believed to have a salutatory effect on the brains of AD patients. Another notable lipid is the molecule EPA-pPE, which has been shown to be a neuroprotective and obstructive agent in the brain. It is also a plausible etiological candidate for AD. In particular, EPA-pPE has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of the neuronal apoptosis rumored to be at the root of AD pathogenesis. This might be due to the fact that EPA-pPE has the aforementioned property of being a non-competitive scavenger of other lipids.
In addition, the aforementioned etiological hypothesis pertaining to EPA-pPE appears to be backed up by a recent study that demonstrated that EPA-pPE exerts a salutatory effect on the aforementioned g-secretase, which catalyzes the process of synthesis of b-amyloid.
They are found in marine life and animal foods
Plasmalogens are membrane glycerophospholipids that are present in animal and marine life. Plasmalogens play a variety of roles within the cell including signal transduction, membrane trafficking, anti-oxidant activity, and storing of signaling molecules. They have been observed in different cellular compartments, including the brain, kidney, skeletal muscle, and lung. The role of plasmalogens is not yet fully understood. However, it is believed that their composition and functions are specific to particular tissues.
Plasmalogens are enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. Their polar head group is typically choline or ethanolamine. Plasmalogens have been identified in both humans and animals, but they are not found in plants or fungi. It is estimated that up to 20 percent of total phospholipid mass is comprised of plasmalogens in human cell membranes.
Plasmalogens have also been suggested to play a role in the formation of curved membrane regions. In addition, plasmalogens are involved in lipid peroxidation. Therefore, the loss of plasmalogens may affect the ability of the body to protect itself from damage. There are also links between plasmalogen deficiency and several pathologies, including metabolic and degenerative diseases. Consequently, more research is needed to understand the function of plasmalogens.
They are responsible for up to 30 per cent of the e2 protective effect
One of the most common causes of cholinergic deficit is peroxisomal dysfunction. This process results in decreased levels of e2 plasmalogen, which is responsible for up to 30 percent of the e2 protective effect. The aforementioned molecule can be restored by a number of enzymatic mechanisms. Among these is phospholipase A2 that releases fatty acids at the sn-2 position. Transacylation may also be involved. Plasmalogen supplementation has been shown to ameliorate metabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high-fat diet.
A recent study showed the presence of a one-o-one glycerol molecule, which is not only the cypher for the aforementioned enzymatic reaction, but also has the potential to bypass peroxisomal biosynthesis of plasmalogens. Using this method, we found that the most important changes were in the polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is also noteworthy that this glycerol molecule is a novel and exciting target for obesity-related metabolic diseases. These findings suggest that the fatty acids derived from this one-o-one molecule could be used to augment the aforementioned sterol-O-acetyltransferase.
In addition, this study revealed that EPA-enriched plasmalogen has potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Interestingly, a higher BMI group showed higher plasmalogen concentrations than the lower ones.
They are abundant in cells
Plasmalogens are one of the major lipid compositions found in cells. They are a subclass of glycerophospholipids. However, they are unique because they contain a vinyl-ether bond, rather than an ester bond. This makes them different from other ether glycerophospholipids.
In addition to their role in cell membrane trafficking, plasmalogens have been proposed to have a number of other biological functions. These include protecting against oxidative stress and activating survival signaling. Some have argued that plasmalogens might also play a role in viral infection.
Plasmalogens are synthesized in a small, subcellular organelle called the peroxisome. This organelle delivers the precursor of plasmalogens, AGP, to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The enzyme, fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1, is bound to the peroxisomal surface and undergoes three sequential reactions to produce AGP.
In mammals, plasmalogen content can make up as much as 20% of the total membrane lipid. It is also found in scallops, which have 7.5 mg/g of muscle.
Plasmalogens are composed of a glycerol backbone joined to two fatty acids, such as linoleic acid. Although a limited amount of work has focused on the nature of the alkyl chain at the sn-2 position of the glycerol moiety, more work is necessary to fully understand the chemistry and function of plasmalogens.