The spacesuit has become one of the most iconic and inspiring objects in science fiction. From the Apollo moon landings to the current SpaceX crew capsule, space suits have played a key role in human exploration of outer space.
It’s been more than 50 years since the first manned space flight, and the technology has come a long way in that time. But what’s the future of space suits?
Powered exoskeletons are machines that assist and protect the wearer. They are often designed for use in military or construction industries and for medical purposes such as helping patients with mobility problems. They are also used in other fields, such as firefighting and rescue operations or to assist the elderly or infirm with climbing stairs or carrying heavy objects.
The concept of powered exoskeletons is not new, but the first practical prototypes were conceived in 1961-1962 by Cornell Aeronautical Labs under a US Air Force funded project called the Man-Amplifier suit. This was not a full working prototype and did not have any motors or servos, but it was a step in the right direction and it proved that the idea was feasible.
Another early attempt at a working exoskeleton was GE’s industrial Hardiman I exo-suit from 1965-1971. The suit had a set of claw-like arms that worked, but the leg-based frame work did not, and it was quickly canceled as it could not be mass produced.
In science fiction, exoskeletons are common, with some characters wearing them in the form of super suits that amplify their abilities or help them in combat. For example, the character Zack Thompson in Tech Jacket’s exosuit allows him to run at Olympic speeds and jump over two-story walls, and the characters Lance and Ilana in Sym-Bionic Titan can transform into massive full coverage armors that cover them as they travel.
They are also seen in animated works such as The Vision of Escaflowne, Full Metal Panic, Bubblegum Crisis, Tekkaman Blade and Gundam. In Japanese anime they are commonly referred to as “Muscle Gear”.
These exoskeletons are usually powered by batteries and are designed to work on a long term basis. This makes them ideal for work, but not so much in combat, where they would only last a short amount of time and require fuel.
Despite these limitations, a number of research programs are underway to improve the performance and reliability of powered exoskeletons, and many of them are focusing on reducing weight and improving power consumption while still maintaining control. These include a DARPA-funded program dubbed Warrior Web, which is testing the ability of a soft material to absorb stress and reduce fatigue while enhancing performance.
Space suits have become an iconic image of human exploration in outer space. From Cold War competition to Moon landings to a continuous human presence on the International Space Station (ISS), they have been used in many important historical moments.
While space suits appear to be simple at first glance, beneath their surface layers lies a complex set of mechanics that mirror the motion of humans and protect their occupants from the harsh environment outside the orbital cavity. This complexity enables the creation of new types of space suits that promise to improve upon previous generations’ capabilities and enable future adventures.
The concept of skintight space suits has been popular in recent science fiction novels, including Jerry Pournelle’s Exiles to Glory and Grant Callin’s Saturnalia and A Lion on Tharthee. Skintight suits use a flexible shell of foam that forms a protective shield from a wide range of potential damage, and also serves as a thermal barrier to resist the heat and pressure of space.
Skintight space suits can be made from a variety of materials, but one option is to use polymers that are able to self-inflate with gas bubbles. This could provide counterpressure against the void’s vacuum, but it would require an ingenious design to achieve this.
In addition, the suit’s interior may be illuminated using ultraviolet light or vaporized hydrogen peroxide to sterilize it. This type of spacesuit would be useful for a variety of applications, from space travel to medical treatment.
Some futuristic space suits have LED lights to help identify people in space. They can be integrated into the exterior or the interior of the suit, and might even display information about the occupant’s status.
This type of space suit could also have a variety of other features, such as sensors that can detect if the occupant is suffering from a medical problem or has a critical life-threatening issue. These types of space suits would be especially useful for astronauts who are in danger or are confined to a small area for long periods.
In addition to being able to help identify individuals, the internal illumination of futuristic space suits can be used to illuminate the surrounding area, allowing a wider audience to see the activity that is taking place in the suit. In addition, these types of space suits may also be able to communicate with other spacecraft to relay important messages or share vital information.
The space suit is an iconic piece of equipment that has played a critical role in many historical moments. From the first moon landing to the establishment of a continuous human presence in low Earth orbit on the ISS, they’ve allowed us to explore our world and beyond.
Today, advances in materials and technology promise to make space suits even more functional. These new advancements include anti-microbial and self-healing agents, as well as enhanced durability in flex fatigue and abrasion.
Anti-microbial agents are added to the suit’s bladder layer to kill bacteria or viruses that are expelled from the occupant during respiration or sweating. These agents reduce odor, improve hygiene, and enhance medical safety.
These materials work in seconds without the need for power or any action by the occupant. This ability is particularly important on extended space missions.
For example, when an astronaut reaches out to grab a robot rover that’s on its way across the planet’s surface, the bladder layer can instantly seal the hold the suit has created. This can save the occupant from being injured by the rover’s wheels or arms.
Future space suits are being developed to address the environmental challenges associated with long-term, high-altitude exploration in a variety of space environments. These include low Earth orbit, which is covered with solar energy and has one-sixth the gravity of Earth; the Moon, which is surrounded by fine particles of lunar dust that can clog bearing joints; and Mars, which has three-eighths the gravity of Earth and is more forgiving of abrasion than the Moon.
The next generation of space suits are also being designed to protect against contaminating chemicals and biological oxidants that could affect the occupant’s health. For example, concepts for internal illumination using ultraviolet light or inflation with vaporized hydrogen peroxide are being tested to sterilize the suit.
While the aforementioned ideas are incredibly exciting, there is a lot of work to be done to make them practical and useful in space. Spacesuits need to be small, lightweight, and able to accommodate a wide range of occupants with interchangeable components. They also need to be durable and have the longest possible life span.
One of the biggest challenges in designing a space suit is getting a balance between strength and flexibility. A space suit must be able to withstand the weight of an astronaut and a full load of equipment, and the flexing joints must have a high range of motion for dexterous work.
It also has to be able to hold up to the stresses that occur during EVAs, such as when an astronaut grabs a satellite while in foot restraints and the inertial load transfers to the suit. This is an especially difficult challenge in a design because it involves multiple factors at once, so any single thing that goes wrong can compromise the performance and safety of the mission.
The first part of the challenge is creating a material that can withstand the stress of being pressurized. The next part is ensuring that the bladder can maintain its shape during the pressure changes, so it won’t balloon up and make it hard to maneuver in space.
This means a lot of testing. Each component of the suit is tested at operational pressure, a few times higher than the actual pressure that will be applied during EVAs, so they can’t leak or get damaged.
They’re also tested for their durability, to ensure that they can handle hundreds of hours of pressure without deteriorating. This is particularly important when it comes to materials, which can degrade over time as a result of repeated exposure to space environments.
Another part of the challenge is getting a design that looks good and fits well. This is a tricky issue because the spacesuit is designed to fit a wide range of body types, so it has to be flexible enough to accommodate any sizing issues.
A new technology being developed at the University of Minnesota-Duluth may be able to address this challenge. A team of researchers from that university, Mines Institute for Advanced Studies in Switzerland and four NASA research centers are working on developing wireless sensors that will monitor an astronaut’s health and send the information back to the spacesuit in real-time.